DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid
The Full Form of DNA is Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. DNA is the hereditary material found in humans and all other living organisms. Every cell in a human body has the same DNA. Most DNA is found in the cell nucleus (where it is known as nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are the cell structures that convert food into energy as a form that cells can use.
DNA is also known for the hereditary information carrier. It contains the genetic information for the development and functioning of all living beings. This information is transferred from one generation to the next generation.
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Nitrogen Bases of DNA
DNA is found in the nucleus of each cell of the organism and the genetic instructions are stored in the form of nitrogen bases. It is made from molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide holds a phosphate group, a sugar group, and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines DNA’s instructions, or genetic code
- Adenine (A)
- Cytosine (C)
- Guanine (G)
- Thymine (T).
Functions of DNA
- Genetic Information: DNA transfers genetic information from one generation to the next generation.
- Replication: DNA can replicate itself. It allows the transfer of genetic instructions from old cells to new cells (Or, from one generation to the next generation).
- Transcription: DNA creates RNAs (Ribonucleic Acid) through the process of transcription.
- Cellular Metabolism: It regulates the metabolic functions of the cells with the help of hormones, enzymes, and specific RNAs.
- Development: It regulates the development of cells in an organism through the internal genetic clock.
- DNA Finger Printing: Every human develops its own DNA sequence that does not match with others. So, this unique property of DNA is very useful in DNA fingerprinting, a technique used to identify an individual from his or her DNA.
I hope this article will help you to understand the full form of DNA in medical/biology.